A computer is an electronic machine that stores over data and information. The computer becomes a part of our daily. It uses in playing games, sending documents, sending emails, search the data, and also search websites. It also uses in making spreadsheets, documents, and also making videos for our business and presentation. But the computer started to evolve from complex to advance in 1940. Computers starts evolving from 1946 to 1980.
First Generations of Computer (1940/1956)
First-generations of Computers used Vacuum tubes. These computers understood machine language. It used the vacuum tubes as electric components and magnetic drums. J.P.Eckert and also J.W.Mauchy invented the first generation computer. Examples of the computers are ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, and also IBM-650. And following the full name of this model.
- ENIAC:- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
- EDVAC:- Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer.
- UNIVAC:- Universal Automatic Computer.
- IBM-701:- International Business Machines-701.
- IBM-650:- International Business Machines-650.
The first generation computer takes a lot of electricity and also generated a lot of heat. As a result, they are very big in the size of the computer and it covers the room surface and it is very costly. These computers can calculate numbers in the millisecond. The weight of the computer was about 20-30 tones.
The efficiency of its work was very low and it also consumes a large amount of energy. It limited to solving the problem and Inputs were based on punched cards and paper tape. The first commercial computer was UNIVAC. Which was purchase by US Census Bureau in 1951. In this vacuum tubes needs a large cooling system.
Second Generations of Computer (1956/1963)
Second-generations of the Computer system used Transistors. Shockley and Walter H. Brattain invented the transistor. In the second generation of computer assembly language are used for input. And a high level programming language is developing. A cooling system is needed for second-generation computer and also Constant maintenance is needed. This computer is used for an important purpose. Better portability and also speed, calculate data speed in a microsecond compared to the first generation of computer.
Its purchasing cost is very less than the first generation of computers. These computer stores command into their memories of magnetic core technology. They use very little energy and also not produce more heat than the first generation of computers. Examples of the computers are Honeywell 400, IBM 7094, CDC 1604, CDC 3600 and also UNIVAC 1108. And following the full name of this model.
- Honeywell 400:- Honey well-400.
- IBM 7094:- International Business Machines-701.
- IBM 1620:- International Business Machines-1620.
- CDC 1604:- The Control Data Corporation-1604.
- CDC 3600:- The Control Data Corporation-3600.
- UNIVAC 1108:- Universal Automatic Computer-1108.
Third Generation of Computer (1964/1971)
Third-generations of the Computer-based on Integrated Circuits. Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby have invented the Integrated Circuits from 1958 to 1959. This Integrated Circuit was also known as the name of the IC. Integrated Circuits containing a number of the transistor in one component. Integrated Circuits were difficult to maintain and a cooling system is required. The highly programmed sophisticated technology needed to make and manufacture the IC (Integrated circuits).
Third generations computers are very cheaper than second and also previous computers. These are small size and fast computers other than the second. And first-generation And it also produces less heat and in this computer silicon chips are used. This computer calculates data in nanoseconds. These computers are used in multiprogramming and also an operating system for better computer management.
Their storage size is larger and it improves the speed of the computer as compared to the first and previous versions of computer. Examples of the computers are PDP-8, PDP-11, ICL 2900, IBM 360, and also IBM 370. And following the full name of this model.
- PDP-8:- Programmed Data Processor-8
- PDP-11:- Programmed Data Processor-11
- ICL 2900:- International Computers Limited-2900
- IBM 360:- International Business Machines-360
- IBM 370:- International Business Machines-370
Fourth Generation of computers (1972/2010)
The fourth generation of computers is totally based on Microprocessor. Graphics User Interface (GUI) was use in this computer for more comfort of consumers. The highly programmed advanced technology needed to make and manufacture the IC (Integrated circuits). This microprocessor logical and arithmetic function is to be performed program. These are small size and also fastest computers other than the third, second, and also previous versions of computer.
In these computers, fewer maintenance needs and high-level language is used in computer. Heat is generate very less in quantity. Their storage size is larger and it improves the speed of the computer as compared to the first, second, and also previous version of computer. Examples of computers are IBM 4341, DEC 10, STAR 1000, and also PUP 11. And following the full name of this model.
- IBM 4341:- International Business Machines-4341
- DEC 10:- Digital Equipment Corporation-10
- STAR 1000:- STAR-1000
- PUP 11:- Potentially unwanted Program-11
Fifth Generation of Computers (2010)
The fifth generation of computers is totally based on Artificial Intelligence. The fifth-generation is to make which can process and respond to the natural language of yours. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is made our reality to possible by using parallel processing and superconductors. It is work faster and it is available in different size of the fifth-generation computer. This provides unique features and it is very user friendly. This is a very low-level of language and humans make doomed and dull. Examples of computers are desktop, laptop, notebook, ultrabook, Chromebook, mac book.
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